More Quantified Statements

Statements With Multiple Quantifiers | Negating Statements With Multiple Quantifiers
Universal Conditional Statements: Contrapositive, Converse, Inverse,Sufficient & Necessary Conditions, Iff

Statements With Multiple Quantifiers

While it would be convenient if the world in general (and discrete mathematics in particular) consisted only of simple if-then statements, the reality is that much of the logic that must be contended with is made up of multiple events strung together by various conditions and quantifiers. For example:

Written formally, this sentence can be expressed as:

The above sentence contains multiple quantifiers. Furthermore, the order in which the quantifiers appear will greatly affect the meaning of the sentence.

Some birds sing all the time. All birds sing sometimes.
birds b | time t, b sings. birds b, time t | b sings.

Except for the order of quantifiers, both formal sentences are the same, yet the meaning of these two sentences is very different.

Practice Exercises

Negating Statements With Multiple Quantifiers

Recall that, in the last review, the negation of a "for all" statement is a "there exists" statement, and vice versa. Then how do you negate a statement with more than one quantifier? Try treating the statement like an algebraic expression:  break it down into manageable, logical components and use what you have already learned to derive the negation. For instance, using an earlier example:  You can fool some of the people all of the time, start by deriving a formal logic expression.

Breaking it down into component parts and negating the sentence as a whole should give you something that looks like this:

Now negate the outside "there exists" quantifier (remember, the negation of a "there exists" statement is a "for all" statement) producing:

Do the same thing again, this time to the inside quantified statement.

Practice Exercises

Universal Conditional Statements:

Using the statement form

x D, if P(x) then Q(x)

the following are examples of other forms of universal conditional statements:

Contrapositive form

x D, if ~Q(x) then ~P(x)

Converse form

x D, if Q(x) then P(x)


x D, if ~P(x) then ~Q(x)

Like the conditional statements presented in section 1.2, a universal conditional statement is logically equivalent to its contrapositive, but not to its converse or inverse forms.

Sufficient Condition

"x , m(x) is a sufficient condition for n(x)" means "x, if m(x) then n(x)".
(If m(x) occurs, then n(x) will happen.)

Necessary Condition

"x, m(x) is a necessary condition for n(x)" means "x, if ~m(x) then ~n(x)".
(If m(x) does not occur, then n(x) cannot happen.)

Only If

"x, n(x) only if m(x)" means "x, if ~m(x) then ~n(x)" or "x, if n(x) then m(x)".
(m(x) is a necessary condition for n(x).)

Practice Exercises