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Traditional SMR Analyses.

In these ``external'' analyses the mortality of Oak Ridge workers was compared with that of the general population of the United States using standardized mortality ratios (SMRs). SMRs were computed for race and gender groups for each cause of death category for which rates are provided by Monson [7]. The statistical strength of the deviation of observed deaths from those expected based on U.S. rates is indicated using the Freeman-Tukey residual (FTR) [8]. Under the null hypothesis the FTRs are approximately normally distributed with mean zero and variance one.