History of Supercomputing timeline text

(DOE accomplishments are in italics).
Panel 1 -- 1939-1945
1939 Atanasoff-Berry Computer created at Iowa State
1940 Konrad Zuse -Z2 uses telephone relays instead of mechanical logical circuits
1943 Collossus - British vacuum tube computer
1944 Grace Hopper, Mark I Programmer (Harvard Mark I)
1945 First Computer "Bug", Vannevar Bush "As we may think"
Panel 2 -- 1946-1949
1946 J. Presper Eckert & John Mauchly, ACM, AIEE, ENIAC,
Stan Ulam & John von Neumann - The Monte Carlo Method
includes images of Von Neumann's first program written for a modern computer (handwritten - 1945) and a sample flow diagram from Goldstine/Von Neumann (1947).
1947 First Transistor, Harvard Mark II (Magnetic Drum Storage)

1948 Manchester Mark I (1st stored-program digital computer), Whirlwind at MIT

1949 Short Order Code by John Mauchly, Core Memory-Jay Forrester
Panel 3 -- 1950-1955
1950 Alan Turing-Test of Machine Intelligence, Univac I (US Census Bureau)

1951 William Shockley invents the Junction Transistor

1952 Illiac I, Univac I at Livermore predicts 1952 election, MANIAC built at Los Alamos, AVIDAC built at Argonne

1953 Edvac, IBM 701

1954 IBM 650 (first mass-produced computer), FORTRAN developed by John Backus
ORACLE-Oak Ridge Automated Computer And Logical Engine

1955 Texas Instruments introduces the silicon transistor, Univac II introduced
Panel 4 -- 1956-1960
1956 MANIAC 2, DEUCE (fixed head drum memory), John McCarthy-MIT Artificial Intelligence Department
1957 IBM introduces RAMAC: random-access method of accounting & control - hard disk, John Backus - IBM first Fortran compiler
1958 Nippon Telegraph & Telephone Musasino-1: 1st parametron computer, Jack Kilby-First integrated circuit prototype; Robert Noyce works separately on IC's, NEC 1101 & 1102
1959 Bell's modem data phone, Robert Noyce & Gordon Moore file patent for Integrated Circuit for Fairchild Semiconductor Corp., IBM 7090-fully transistorized
1960 Paul Baran at Rand develops packet-switching, NEAC 2201, Whirlwind-air traffic control, Livermore Advanced Research Computer (LARC), Control Data Corportation CDC 1604, First major international computer conference
Panel 5 -- 1961-1965
1961 IBM Stretch-Multiprogramming
1962 Control Data Corporation opens lab in Chippewa Falls headed by Seymour Cray, Telestar launced, Atlas-virtual memory and pipelined operations, Timesharing-IBM 709 and 7090
1963 IBM 360-third generation computer, Limited test ban treaty, IEEE formed
1964 The Sage System, CDC 6600 designed by Seymour Cray (First commercially successful supercomputer-speed of 9 megaflops)
1965 J.A. Robinson develops unification theory
Panel 6 -- 1966-1970
1966 RS-232-C standard for data exchange between computers & peripherals, IBM 1360 Photostore-onlne terabit mass storage
1967 CMOS integrated circuits, Texas Instruments Advanced Scientific Computer (ASC)
1968 RAND-decentralized communication network concept, Donald Knuth-algorithms & data structures separate from their programs, Univac 9400
1969 Arpanet, Seymour Cray-CDC 7600 (40 megaflops), US Moon Landing
1970 Xerox Palo Alto Research Center, "Computer" monthly debuts, Unix developed by Dennis Ritchie & Kenneth Thomson
Panel 7 -- 1971-1975
1971 CDC Star, Nicholas Wirth develops Pascal, Ted Hoff, S. Mazor, & F. Fagin-Intel 4004 microprocessor-a "computer on a chip"
Global modeling of terrestrial carbon exchanges
1972 Ray Tomlinson sends first email, IEEE Computer Society
1973 Large-scale integration, Burrough's Illiac IV early large scale parallel processing
1974 John Vincent Atanasoff recognized as the creator of the modern computer
The Controlled Thermonuclear Research Computer Center, established to support magnetic fusion research, goes on line in July 1974 with a borrowed computer, a Control Data Corp. 6600 (1 megaflop).
1975 Large-scale integration-10,000 components on 1 sq. cm chip, Robert Metcalfe "Ether Acquisition", Gordon Bell-Vax Project
DOE creates ESnet
Panel 8 -- 1976-1983
1976 Cray Research-CRAY I vector architecture (designed by Seymour Cray, shaped the computer industry for years to come), delivered to LLNL and LANL; Datapoint introduces ARC (first local area network)
1977 Fiber optic cable, LANL-Common File System (CFS) storage for central & remote computers
1978 DEC introduces VAX11/780 (32 bit super/minicomputer)
1979 Xerox, DEC, Intel - ethernet support
1980 David A. Patterson and John Hennessy "reduced instruction set", CDC Cyber 205
1981 Commercial e-mail service, 64K bits memory-Japan
Establishment of global data centers
1982 Cray X-MP, Japan-fifth generation computer project
1983 1st 8-processor CRAY 2 delivered to NERSC
CDIAC (Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center) established at ORNL
Panel 9 -- 1984-1989
1984 Thinking Machines and Ncube are founded- parallel processing, Hitachi S-810/20, Fujitsu FACOM VP 200, Convex C-1, NEC SX-2
1985 Thinking Machines Connection Machine, Ultra High Speed Graphics Project-LANL (real-time animation, 1 billion operations per second)
First distributed memory parallel computer (Intel iPSC/1, 32 cpus) delivered to ORNL
1986 IBM 3090 VPF, message-passing multiprocessor simulator developed at ORNL
COMPUTATIONAL MATERIALS PHYSICS: First-principles theoretical studies of alloy and experiments composition, impurity segregation, and environmental embrittlement provide critical information on brittle fracture in intermetallic alloys, which greatly extends the usable temperature range for intermetallic alloys. (in 80s)
1987 Evans and Sutherland ES-1, Fujitsu VP-400E, NSFnet established, New tracer techniques developed by ORNL researchers at Oak Ridge Reservation help understand complex subsurface transport processes occuring in heterogeneous, fractured porous media
1988 Apollo, Ardent, and Stellar Graphics Supercomputers, Hitachi S-820/80,
Hypercube simulation on a LAN at ORNL,
3D FEMWATER, a three-dimensional finite element model is developed to simulate water flow through saturated-unsaturated media.
1989 CRAY Y-MP, Tim Berners-Lee: World Wide Web project at CERN, Seymour Cray: Founds Cray Computer Corp.-Begins CRAY 3 using gallium arsenide chips, FEMAIR, A finite-element model for simulating airflow through porous media is developed at ORNL to study novel remediation strategies such as in situ soil venting and vacuum extraction.
Panel 10 -- 1990-1996
1990 Bell Labs: all-optical processor, Intel launches parallel supercomputer with RISC microprocessors; MFECC renamed to NERSC; ORNL materials/superconductivity calculations win Gordon Bell award for price/performance, 1st prize for scientific excellence from IBM competition, and Cray GigaFLOP award; ORNL releases world's first publicly available 3D deterministic radiation transport code (TORT); ARM (Atmospheric Radiation Measurement) archive established at ORNL
1991 Japan announces plans for sixth-generation computer based on neural networks; First M-bone audio multicast transmitted on the Net; NEC SX-3, Hewlett-Packard and IBM-RISC based computers; Fujitsu VP-2600; Intel Touchstone Delta (first over 500 node computer) ANL, LANL, LLNL, PNNL, SNL all members of the consortium; ORNL releases PVM; CHAMMP starts - Massively parallel computing applied to global climate models; LAPACK provides routines for solving systems of simultaneous linear equations, making the widely used EISPACK and LINPACK libraries run efficiently on shared-memory vector and parallel processors.
1992 Thinking Machines CM-5
1993 CRAY T3D
DOE establishes High Performance Computing Research Centers at LANL (ACL) and ORNL (CCS) to support Grand Challenge computing: Computational Biology, Computational Chemistry, Groundwater, Materials, Numerical Tokamak, Quantum Chromodynamics, and Quantum Structure of Matter.
PFEM, A Parallel port of 3D Femwater
1994 Netscape, NCSA Mosaic; Leonard Adleman-DNA as computing medium; Microscopic theory of the vortex state in superconductors solved at ORNL; The ScaLAPACK (or Scalable LAPACK) library - LAPACK routines redesigned for distributed memory MIMD parallel computers, portable on any computer that supports PVM or MPI.
1995 ACM 50th celebration, Iowa State creates full-sized replica of Atanasoff-Berry Computer
GMR research leads to higher density disks - Researchers from ORNL and LLNL receive the DOE-BES Award for Outstanding Scientific Accomplishment in Metallurgy and Ceramics for 1995 for simulation work; The DONIO library developed at ORNL enables 100 fold speedup of I/O in the DOE grand challenge code GCT; The National HPCC Software Exchange (NHSE) is established to actively promote software sharing and reuse within and across the HPCC agency programs on a sustainable basis; HPC-Netlib (provided by ORNL/UTK); CUMULVS introduced
1996 IEEE computer society 50th anniversary
Supercomputers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratories, and the Pittsburgh Supercomputing Center are linked via high speed networks using PVM software, so that scientific researchers could use two or more of these machines as a single resource; Electronic notebooks; Electron microscope put online; Dr. Gary A. Glatzmaier of LANL wins the Sid Fernbach award; American Physical Society's 1996 Aneesur Rahman Prize for Computational Physics to Steven Louie of LBL
Panel 11 -- 1997-1999
1997ASCI Red -- first teraflop computer delivered
Linked runs of CTH and LSMS over ATM using PVM on ORNL/SNL paragons
CalTech/JPL simulates 50,000 synthetic forces
NetSolve -- remote solving of complex scientific problems over a network
1998 DOE sweeps awards at SC98
LSMS achieves a teraflop on a T3E and wins the Gordon Bell award
ATLAS -- automatic generation and optimization of numerical software

Large scale genome analysis
Protein structure prediction
1999 ASCI Blue -- three teraflop systems installed at LANL and LLNL
National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX)
25th anniversary of NERSC