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The R package Statistical Analysis of Non-detect Data (sand) Version 1.5 (REVISED 10 Oct 2011) contains most of the functions described in ORNL/TM-2005/52. The functions in the sand package replace the "informal" R functions at the AOED website described in ORNL/TM-2005/52. The most important changes are the addition of on-line help files that document each function and the functions readss (revised) and icfit (new function for interval censored data---see the examples in Step 3 below)

Statistical Methods and Software for the Analysis of
Occupational Exposure Data With Non-Detectable Values  

Edward L. Frome and Paul F. Wambach
ORNL Technical Report "Statistical Methods and Software for the
Analysis of Occupational Exposure Data With Non-Detectable Values",

ORNL/TM-2005/52 is available here in PDF format
Abridged Version (Abstract,Introduction,Applications and Appendix) is available here in HTML format

The following instructions explain how to obtain the Windows (95 or later) version of R, download and install the sand package, and analyze data using these functions in sand.   The folder "...\My Documents"  will be used to illustrate how to download and install the R package sand Version 1.5 . To REPLACE earlier Versions with Version 1.5 REPEAT Steps 2-f through 2-j
Version 1.2 corrects an error in function kmms. See Item 5 in Step 3, page 25 in the sand manual (Item 4 below), or the online help file for kmms.

Version 1.3 makes two changes in calls to optim() in function ---see CHANGES IN R VERSION 2.6.0 at for additional details. (read what's new in the latest version). Version 1.2 of sand will generate an error message in due to the change in R 2.6.0. This is the only change from sand Version 1.2

NOTE: Version 1.4 resolves compatibility issues with R version 2.6, and survfit version 2.34-1, and will only run in earlier versions of R (<= 2.9.1). Sand Version 1.5 will only run in later versions of R ( >= 2.10.1)

Select the appropriate step from the left hand menu

1. Install R and place R-icon (shortcut) on your desktop. 
NOTE: this step requires Administrator permission.

2. Download and install R package sand. If you are NOT using Window OS see Step 1-f

3. Examples of how to use the most important functions in sand.

4. Reference Manual [sand.pdf] For Version 1.5 (same as Version 1.3 and 1.4 )


R is a language and environment for statistical computing and graphics. It compiles and runs on a wide variety of UNIX platforms and similar systems (including FreeBSD and Linux), Windows, and MacOS. R is available as Free Software under the terms of the Free Software Foundation's GNU General Public License in source code form and as binaries.

For additional information visit the R Homepage and read What is R? (see Menu on left) and the FAQs under Documentation. For on line documentation go to the R Homepage and Select [Manuals] on left hand menu and then see Item 1 An Introduction to R and click on [browse HTML].

For additional information on the use of this package in a Windows environment CLICK HERE

To obtain information on changes to the sand package send an e-mail message to with
Subject: R Package sand.

Developed For U. S. DOE, Office of Health, Safety, and Security
Last Modified 11 Oct 2011
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