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``external'' analyses the mortality of Oak Ridge workers was compared
with that of the general population of the United States using
standardized mortality ratios (SMRs). SMRs were computed for race and
gender groups for each cause of death category for which rates are
provided by Monson . The statistical strength of the
deviation of observed deaths from those expected based on U.S. rates
is indicated using the Freeman-Tukey residual (FTR) .
Under the null hypothesis the FTRs are approximately normally
distributed with mean zero and variance one.