## Plasmas beyond MHD: Two-fluids and symmetry breaking## L E Sugiyama, W Park, H R Strauss, G Fu, J Breslau, J Chen, S. KlaskyExtended MHD effects are important in the nonlinear behavior of magnetically confined plasmas, even at the simplest level represented by the self-consistent diamagnetic ($\mathbf{B} \times \nabla p$) drifts. Allowing the electrons and ions to move independently, even as fluids, breaks certain geometrical symmetries preserved by the MHD equations that can be important for toroidal fusion burning plasmas. These symmetries are also broken by certain experimental designs and high temperature plasma conditions. Results are shown from the two-fluid and hybrid particle/fluid models in the M3D MPP code, part of the SciDAC CEMM (Center for Extended Magnetohydrodynamic Modeling) project. |