The UltraNet project is a result of the need for an experimental testbed to develop and test various networking technologies for DOE large-science applications. Such need have been repeatedly established at various DOE roadmap workshops.
A fairly comprehensive account of the networking requirements of DOE large-scale science applications from a variety of areas can be found at the DOE network planning workshop:
A roadmap for DOE networking is formulated at the following workshop:
A detailed discussion on provisioning and transport technologies needed for DOE large-scale science applications can be found at the DOE workshop: