History of Supercomputing

Panel 10 -- 1990-1996

timeline only

DOE is clearly leading the pack in supercomputing as DOE researchers sweep the 1990 national computing awards. The first DOE-wide computing center is renamed as a supercomputing center to reflect the change in DOE's computing capabilities and broader mission. DOE further commits to supercomputing by creating two High Performance Computing Rearch Centers (at Los Alamos and Oak Ridge).

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1990 Bell Labs: all-optical processor, Intel launches parallel supercomputer with RISC microprocessors; MFECC renamed to NERSC; ORNL materials/superconductivity calculations win Gordon Bell award for price/performance, 1st prize for scientific excellence from IBM competition, and Cray GigaFLOP award; ORNL releases world's first publicly available 3D deterministic radiation transport code (TORT); ARM (Atmospheric Radiation Measurement) archive established at ORNL
1991 Japan announces plans for sixth-generation computer based on neural networks; First M-bone audio multicast transmitted on the Net; NEC SX-3, Hewlett-Packard and IBM-RISC based computers; Fujitsu VP-2600; Intel Touchstone Delta (first over 500 node computer) ANL, LANL, LLNL, PNNL, SNL all members of the consortium; ORNL releases PVM; CHAMMP starts - Massively parallel computing applied to global climate models; LAPACK provides routines for solving systems of simultaneous linear equations, making the widely used EISPACK and LINPACK libraries run efficiently on shared-memory vector and parallel processors.
1992 Thinking Machines CM-5
1993 CRAY T3D
DOE establishes High Performance Computing Research Centers at LANL (ACL) and ORNL (CCS) to support Grand Challenge computing: Computational Biology, Computational Chemistry, Groundwater, Materials, Numerical Tokamak, Quantum Chromodynamics, and Quantum Structure of Matter.
PFEM, A Parallel port of 3D Femwater
1994 Netscape, NCSA Mosaic; Leonard Adleman-DNA as computing medium; Microscopic theory of the vortex state in superconductors solved at ORNL; The ScaLAPACK (or Scalable LAPACK) library - LAPACK routines redesigned for distributed memory MIMD parallel computers, portable on any computer that supports PVM or MPI.
1995 ACM 50th celebration, Iowa State creates full-sized replica of Atanasoff-Berry Computer
GMR research leads to higher density disks - Researchers from ORNL and LLNL receive the DOE-BES Award for Outstanding Scientific Accomplishment in Metallurgy and Ceramics for 1995 for simulation work; The DONIO library developed at ORNL enables 100 fold speedup of I/O in the DOE grand challenge code GCT; The National HPCC Software Exchange (NHSE) is established to actively promote software sharing and reuse within and across the HPCC agency programs on a sustainable basis; HPC-Netlib (provided by ORNL/UTK); CUMULVS introduced
1996 IEEE computer society 50th anniversary
Supercomputers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratories, and the Pittsburgh Supercomputing Center are linked via high speed networks using PVM software, so that scientific researchers could use two or more of these machines as a single resource; Electronic notebooks; Electron microscope put online; Dr. Gary A. Glatzmaier of LANL wins the Sid Fernbach award; American Physical Society's 1996 Aneesur Rahman Prize for Computational Physics to Steven Louie of LBL

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